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There are a lot of different elements that go into a successful PPC account, but few things are more frustrating than setting up your account only to have your clicks limited by a high cost per click (CPC).
In this post, we will examine what causes high CPCs, and some cover a handful of strategies you can try to drive them down.
Max CPC vs. Actual CPC
Before we start, it’s best to make the distinction between Max CPC and Actual CPC. Max CPC is the maximum amount of money that you’re willing to spend on a click. Actual CPC is what you end up paying.
Example: If your Max CPC bid is $2.00, but you can secure the top spot with a bid of $1.65, you’ll only pay $1.65 per click instead of $2.00.
Of course, there are other factors that go into bidding, but we won’t get into them in this article. You can read about those factors here.
What Causes High CPC?
Before you can work on improving your average CPC, it’s essential to understand the factors that influence it. There are three primary considerations:
Google Ads runs similarly to an eBay auction. Every time someone searches, the auction takes place. Several things determine the winner, but your bid is one of the most significant factors. The more people that are bidding on a keyword, the more expensive it will be.
This is one that you can’t really control, but it’s vital to understand. Using Google’s Keyword Planner can give you an idea of what the expected CPC is for keywords in your industry. In general, industries that have a higher value per conversion have higher average CPCs because advertisers are willing to pay more per click.
Example: For law firms, one conversion could mean hundreds of thousands of dollars for the business, so it makes sense to pay a much higher cost per click. Compare that to a retailer selling boxes of gelatin for $2 a piece. They have to pay a much lower cost per click to remain profitable.
Quality Score is a metric given by Google to rate the quality of your keywords. It combines your historical performance and the overall relevance of your ads, landing pages, and keywords. The end result is a score from 1 to 10 that directly affects what you will have to pay to reach a specific position on the page. The more relevant you are, the less Google will charge you to rank high. We’ll talk about improving your quality score later in the article.
Strategies to Lower CPC
Understanding why your CPC is a specific price empowers you to begin to improve it. Here are a few strategies to keep in mind when attempting to optimize your campaigns and drive down average CPC.
The most straightforward tip to implement is to aim for a lower ad position. Experiment with showing up in position 1, 2, 3, etc. Does showing up in position 3 seriously decrease your clicks? If users are still clicking even when you aren’t in position 1, it may be worth it to settle for a lower position if it means significant decreases in CPC.
Another solution to high CPC is to bid on keywords where your competitors aren’t. The more specific you can get with your keywords while still being relevant, the cheaper your cost per click will become because fewer people are bidding.
Example: If you are running an e-commerce gelatin company (pretty niche, I know), you might think of bidding on the word “gelatin.” Makes sense, but it’s likely that every other online gelatin retailer in the country is also bidding on that keyword.
Instead, bid on “sugar-free strawberry gelatin.” Still relevant, but much less likely to be bid on by competitors.
Improve Ad Relevance
Look to improve your quality score by improving your ad relevance. The closer your ad resembles a user’s search, the higher your rating will be.
Example: Let’s revisit my online gelatin retailer. Say a user searches for “strawberry sugar-free gelatin,” and this ad shows up:
It’s relevant, sure, but it could be better.
Now, what if I changed the headline to this:
Much more relevant to the search.
I know what you’re thinking: “But how can I make an ad that specific for everyone?” I’m glad you asked, that brings us to our next point.
Make Your Ad Groups More Specific
When creating campaigns and ad groups, separate your offerings into small, related groups so you can target each group individually.
Doing this gives yourself the flexibility to create ads tailored specifically to each ad group. This increased ad relevance will provide your quality score a boost, and decrease your average cost per click.
Example: Gelatin Town offers many different types of gelatin, for many different, gelatin-related needs. It’s important to distinguish between all our diverse offerings. So, I would create ad groups like “sugar-free gelatin” and “flavored gelatin” and tailor my ad copy to those specific ad groups.
Test New Landing Pages
If you have multiple landing pages or have the budget to create them, testing new ones can be a fantastic way to improve CPC. Landing pages influence two factors in the quality score: ad relevance and landing page experience. You can find more information on how to create a killer landing page here.
Example: Back to Gelatin Town. If I have an ad group for “sugar-free gelatin,” I want my ads to go to the most relevant landing page possible. So, instead of having the ad linking to my site’s home page, it should link to a page displaying all of Gelatin Town’s delicious sugar-free gelatin.
Now, Go Do It!
So, what did we learn today?
Hopefully, you learned a bit about what causes your actual CPC to be what it is, as well as a few ways to improve the overall health of your account. Following these tips should help you begin to make progress driving your CPC down.
The post Why Your Average Cost Per Click is So High and How to Fix It appeared first on Portent.
- In the year 2013 nearly 3.2 billion new email accounts were created.
- 95% internet consumers are active users of email for using as a medium of communication.
- 91% of these consumers check emails that they receive on a daily basis.
After years of doing business, studying business, and helping other businesses, one thing has become painfully clear… People like doing business with people, …
To immediately clear the air, this post is not about why you should be tracking micro conversions. If you are a seasoned marketing professional, you already understand the importance of them.
This post is about how you can use Google Analytics (GA) coupled with Google Tag Manager (GTM) to identify and track the end-impact of those micro conversions.
You will be able to set up segments within GA that are tied to a specific micro conversion on your site and answer the question,
“Are people who experience this micro conversion more or less likely to achieve a macro conversion?”
Some examples of other types of questions you’ll be able to answer include:
- “Are people who visit the special offers page more likely to convert?”
- “Which CTA leads to a higher rate of sales?”
- “Which blog pages lead to a higher chance of newsletter signup?”
- “Are people who watch our video more likely to fill out the form?”
Disclaimer: Be on the lookout for false positives. They are terrifyingly easy to fall victim to using this tactic. Start with the data, and then take a qualitative look at the micro conversion and determine if it was the micro conversion or something else that had an effect on conversion rates. Remember, you aren’t in your users head, so you have to use context clues about their experience to understand their intent.
Step 1: Figure Out What You Want to Track
Already tracking your micro conversions in GA? Skip to Step 3: Setting up your Segments and Analyzing
Experience it Yourself
Mimic all the possible journeys a user can experience through your site and pay attention to every action you take. This includes things like CTA clicks, element views, form fills, video plays, or page depth. Take note of any of these micro conversions, as you will be setting events up for them later in GTM.
Check the Data
While the behavioral flow tool in GA can be useful, I find it a bit hard to easily comprehend in a timely manner. Below are a few alternative ways you can use GA to see what pages users most commonly visit before converting.
Using the Navigation Summary view is a great way to see where most of your users are coming from in relation to your contact/lead generation page.
- In Google Analytics, navigate to “Behavior>>Site Content>>All Pages.”
- Choose a macro conversion page (such as your contact page).
- Select the “Navigation Summary” view.
When you get to this view (screenshot below), you can see the most common “previous” and “next” pages a user visits in relation to the page you selected.
This is a great way to understand which page most commonly sends users to the contact or lead generation page of your choosing. If any of the % Pageviews stand out from the rest, it is worth tracking visits to that page as a micro conversion to see if it really does attribute to macro conversion rates.
Goal Completion Location: Goal Previous Step
If your macro conversion has a thank you page as the Goal URL (and the macro conversion form lives on multiple pages of the site) you can use this tactic to learn the pages that most commonly lead to that macro conversion.
- In Google Analytics, navigate to “Conversions>>Goals>>Goal URLs.”
- Choose a macro conversion Goal URL (such as your thank you page).
- Select the “Secondary Dimension” list and choose “Goal Conversions” and then choose “Goal Previous Step – 1.”
In this view (screenshot below) you can see which page(s) most commonly resulted in a thank you page visit. Remember, this tactic is best when your lead generation forms exist on pages other than your contact page.
Observe Your Users
Use a session recording tool like FullStory. Filter for only users who reach the macro conversion and observe. Look for patterns that might be attributed to their end conversion.
Step 2: Use GTM to Set Up Events for Micro Conversions
For non-page visit micro conversions, you will need to use GTM to set up events. It’s a simple process, but you will need a basic understanding of how to use GTM first.
My favorite method for this is using the “Preview” tool in GTM and performing all the micro-interactions I want to track.
Make Sure All of the Variables for the Interactions you Want to Track are Active.
For example, if you want to track video views as a micro conversion, you will need to enable the variables under the “Videos” section of the Built-In Variables list.
- In GTM navigate to “Workspace>>Variables>>Configure.”
- Find the variables related to the micro conversions you want to track (most commonly, this will be clicks and should already be activated).
- Select the variables you want GTM to track.
Go into Preview Mode and Perform the Micro Conversions
This is where you are going to determine what variables associated with the micro conversion you are going to use in order to track it.
- In GTM, choose “Preview Mode” on the top right.
- Open your website and perform the micro conversions you want to track. If your interaction sends you to a new page, hold the Command function (Mac) or Control function (PC) on your keyboard and then perform the action to open the page on a new tab. Once you perform your action, go to the Variables selection in the Debugger tool and find unique variables associated with that action. You will want to use a combination of variables so that this event only fires when that specific action on that specific page takes place. In the screenshot example below, we are looking to find unique variables to the hero CTA, “See What We Do.”
- Set up a trigger for your micro conversion. This will allow you to use a combination of variables and trigger an event once all those variables are met. In other words, it will allow you to track your micro interaction. In GTM, navigate to “Workspace>>Triggers>>New.”
- You will then be presented with a view of “Trigger Types” to select from. Choose the one that equates to your micro conversion. For example, if your micro conversion is a link click, choose “Just Links” under the “Click” type.
- You will then be presented with a “Trigger Configuration” view. Complete the criteria and choose the variables you found to isolate the micro conversion. See an example below for the “Homepage Hero CTA” click we referenced earlier.
Set Up GA Events Using GTM
Next you will create a Tag that will fire an event once your micro conversion has been triggered.
- Navigate to the “Tags” section and choose “New” on the top right.
- Click on “Tag Configuration” and choose your tag type. In this case, you will choose “Google Analytics.”
- Under “Track Type” choose “Event” and then fill out your Category, Action, and Label event details.Disclaimer: make sure you have a proper naming convention for your events as far as Category, Action, and Label go. This will save you a lot of time when you’re analyzing.
- Once you save this, select the “Triggering” region underneath your Event details and choose the trigger you created for your micro conversion.
- Save the tag and publish your workspace. Your GA Event for your micro conversion is now good to go for analysis!
Step 3: Setting Up Your Segment in GA
- To create a new segment in GA, choose the “Add Segment” option at the top of your view (next to “All Users”).
- Then choose “+NEW SEGMENT.”
- Then you will go to “Conditions” on the left, choose the filter dropdown for User, then select the event criteria you created in GTM here.
- Disclaimer: for the Filter, you can select “User” as we directed or keep it with “Sessions.” Our Analytics Architect Michael Wiegand Explains which one to use and why:
“Choosing Users spans all sessions from a given person, but is limited to 90-day window. Choosing Sessions is limited to 1 stay, but allows you to look at more than 90 days. So the tradeoff really is a historical look back beyond 90 days (Sessions) versus the whole customer journey within 90 days (Users).”
- If your micro conversion is a page visit, you’ll follow the same steps but instead of “Event Action” you will choose “Page” and include the URL.
- Save your segment, you’re now ready to collect data and analyze.
Step 4: Analyzing Your Micro Conversions Using Segments
With micro conversions, the most valuable thing you can learn is how a micro conversion is affecting your macro conversions. The goal here, as mentioned, is to figure out if people who experience this micro conversion are more or less likely to achieve a macro conversion.
Compare Segment Versus Baseline
A good starting point is to select the “All Users” segment at the same time as your micro conversion segment. Here, you’ll be able to see how your segment of micro-converters does against the baseline.
For example, for an automotive industry client, we created a segment (micro conversion) for users who visited their special offer page. The macro conversion, in this case, is when a user starts to schedule an appointment to get new tires.
The findings from tracking this micro conversion were counterintuitive but led us to discover a bigger problem that needed to be solved.
Somehow, users who visited the special offer page actually had a lower conversion rate than all users combined.
Thanks to tracking this micro conversion, we were able to spot a serious pain point on the site and take action to fix it.
Compare Similar Segments Against Each Other
Say that you have several different CTAs on your site that bring the user to the same lead generation page. You can set up micro conversions for each of those different CTAs and see which one(s) lead to a higher conversion rate.
Another client, who provides free quotes for solar energy installation, had four different treatments on their site to get users to the “Get a Quote” page.
We created a micro-conversion segment for each of those CTAs and compared them all against each other.
Now it can get a little busy here, but you can clearly see how each CTA did as far as the macro conversion page it led users to.
In this example, we learned that the “Homepage Hero CTA Clickers” are much less likely to convert than users who engaged with the other CTAs.
Our actionable takeaway was to replace the homepage hero CTA with one that was a little higher up in the funnel.
When you are analyzing these micro conversions, don’t stop at the first insight you come across. You should continuously compare them against all the different goals you have set up in GA. And remember to be on the lookout for false positives!
Pro Tip: the best way to avoid false positives is to validate your findings with either a deeper analytics dive or through an A/B test.
If you find yourself creating segments for every little interaction on your site, don’t fret. While it’s possible to get a little carried away with these, it’s better to have a larger pool of micro conversions to analyze than having to go through steps 1-2 to set up the tracking for them.
The post How to Track Micro Conversions with Google Analytics appeared first on Portent.
As social marketers and change agents, our theories drive how we understand and describe problems and propose and test different solutions to them. What is a theory? In science, it is a way in which we think about how the world works – what are the problems, what questions do we ask in our research, what interventions do we design, how do we evaluate outcomes (either positive or negative), and do the expected outcomes really make a difference in the big picture? While there are many theories to choose from, many change agents have only the slightest idea about a few of them if they had a survey course of ‘behavioral theories.’ If they haven’t had a such a course, the use of any commonly agreed upon, and research-tested, framework to think about and change the world plummets. If every social entrepreneur and change agent has their own “theory of change” – good luck with that. Innovation in tackling wicked problems also suffers from unfamiliarity with theories of change as people simply repeat what others have done: there is little exploration of insights that different theories can guide us towards. Learning about other ways of thinking about the world, call them ‘theories,’ can help us adopt different points-of-view about a problem, provide different analogies for thinking through possible solutions, weigh the benefits and risks of selecting one strategy over another, and broaden our perspective (Ness, 2015). And perhaps the bottom line is the conclusion reached by Hornik (2002) that the use of the wrong theory to define and solve a problem is one of the key sources for program failure.
Let’s look at the evidence for using theory in solving problems. Hornik & Yanovitsky (2003) argue that designing interventions and evaluations of complex interventions such as social marketing are extremely difficult without a theory of change to guide what variables to measure/change and how to attribute success to the intervention. I suggest you consider that social change is so complex that, without a theory of change (with the caveat that it has research evidence to support it), you are wandering in the wilderness of what and how to develop interventions. Noar et al (2012) reported that only 15/34 (44%) of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns reported using theory on which to ground their approach – an improvement from <20% of interventions in the previous decade. Yet, the use of theories in social marketing is largely unexplored despite several systematic reviews of its application. The key reason is that creators of benchmark criteria for social marketing did not include use of theory. Thus, reviews of social marketing interventions by Stead et al. (2007), Fujihira, et al. (2015), Carins & Rundle-Thiele (2014) and Xia et al. (2016) are silent on this basic scientific question – are social marketing interventions based on explicitly stated theories or just made up? I found one review of the use of branding in social marketing programs. Evans et al (2015) found that of 69 articles they reviewed that used branding, 77% of them contained enough information to identify one or more theories that were used in the design and implementation of the branding effort. In one study that did not use benchmark criteria to qualify 155 articles of “social marketing effectiveness,” Helmig & Thaler (2010) found that nearly 2/3rds did not explicitly reference a theory on which the intervention was based. So are theories being applied in social marketing programs? So far most reviewers don’t consider them important when asking the question ‘what makes social marketing effective?’ Perhaps the new definition of social marketing that includes “[an integration of] research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight, to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable” may lead more program designers and researchers to consider this element of intervention effectiveness when designing and reviewing them.
This post is not a review of all the possible theories that could be used in social marketing [see my chapter of theories in social marketing], but the only one I believe can add a broad and valuable lens in your research and practice. And thanks to a recent article in Translational Behavioral Medicine (Riley et al, 2016), a road map for social cognitive theory (SCT) has finally appeared. The article is the first to present SCT graphically. The authors’ purpose is to create a model for testing dynamic computational modeling of SCT hypotheses. You might not be interested in those details, so ignore the math in the figure below. But the key pieces of the theory, and how they relate to behavior, is what I’m focusing on here. We’re going to walk through it in a moment.
First the disclaimers: I am an ardent social cognitive theorist and practitioner. My ‘academic grand-father’ is Albert Bandura, the formulator of the theory who consulted on my PhD dissertation that was under the guidance of one of his students, Dave Rimm. I have been quoted as saying that if every public health person read Bandura’s Social Foundations of Thought and Action the world would already be a better place (but as friends have pointed out, it’s a really thick book – the best ones always are). But enough qualifications: this is the approach that encompasses a broad perspective to learning and behavior change that should be the hallmark of social marketing; not some isolated ideas about benefits and costs, increasing intentions to act, nudges or changing peer and social norms.
As shown in the figure (reprinted by permission of the publisher, and you can click on it to see an enlarged version), the key variables in SCT that are important for both intervention and evaluation actions are:
Self-efficacy: how confident someone is that they can perform a given behavior is the central issue. Self-efficacy for a given behavior will vary over time, and in different situations. the behavior must also be specifically described. For example, how confident are you that you can eat a fruit with breakfast this morning? Yes, the context is breakfast, and if you don’t eat breakfast, your efficacy is likely zero. But what if you do eat breakfast, what kind of fruit are you confident you could eat – a banana, a papaya, a pomegranate? I don’t know about you, but the differences in my confidence for eating some fruits over others at breakfast is pretty dramatic. Ask me to eat the wrong fruit, in the wrong context, and I’m likely to say “pass.” Confidence in ability to perform the behavior = self=efficacy —> behavior.
Self-efficacy can be influenced by several different variables shown on the left; the most important may be by observing other people’s behavior (or vicarious learning). Every time you, or someone else, sees someone do something (and that ‘seeing’ may be through directly watching them in real life, through an audio-visual media such as television or YouTube, hearing about it on a radio or podcast, or reading about it in a book or blog), that person becomes a model for a behavior you might decide to avoid, try, maintain or change. Several factors influence whether you imitate the behavior or not, not least of which is whether you see that person experience positive or negative outcomes.
Another important contribution to self-efficacy is a person’s prior experience with the behavior. If I’ve never eaten a pomegranate (as opposed to bananas and papayas), or even tried to prepare one to eat, asking me to eat one for breakfast is going to get you many quizzical looks and questions. Do you peel it? Wash it? Cook it? Slice it? Of course, once I’ve done it a few times – or even watched a video of someone else doing it, my confidence (self-efficacy) for eating one goes up. And then the consequences for my engaging in the behavior, positive or negative, also contribute to my sense of self-efficacy (I’m told a pomegranate stain is difficult to remove, are they as tasty as a banana or papaya?). Also,it’s important to remember that what I define as ’success’ may be different from how someone else defines it for themselves (or me!).
Then there are things like obstacles and barriers – variables that inexplicably receive laser focus from social marketers and other change agents but which, in the scheme of things, are really nuisances. If a person has a high sense of self-efficacy, more times than not they do not need our help to remove or overcome most of the barriers and obstacles to eating a pomegranate (or banana or papaya) for breakfast. Yes, they may need a Price (affordable to purchase) and Place (access and availability to purchase them) intervention to assist them at key steps. Other than that, we don’t give people enough credit for being resourceful if they truly want to eat pomegranates for breakfast – or do almost anything else they believe that they can do – and want to.
The last point, that they are motivated to do something, can come from an array of internal factors that the model lumps together as physical, mental and emotional interpersonal states. There are too many possible variables that exist in this space to review them all here. To continue the example of the pomegranate though, if I wake up tired and late, have a major presentation to give first thing when I arrive at the office, the dog decides it’s a nice day to smell the flowers rather than get her business done, and all that is churning up more frustration and anxiety (“Will I get to the office in time for the presentation?”)… then no, I’m probably not having a pomegranate for breakfast. If I’m preparing Sunday brunch for some friends, then there may be a another set of motivations to be sure to include pomegranates (show off some culinary curiosity and talents and wait for the applause?).
Then there’s the issue of perceived social support and/or persuasion. If other people in my social networks (for example, family members, peers or colleagues) talk about and practice eating five servings of fruits and vegetables a day and say “You can do it, we’ll help,” then I may be more inclined to believe I can do it too. If they are encouraging me, so much the better for my confidence level. If one of them is an aficionado of pomegranates, I have it made.
Now I have to have the self-management skills: can I make the changes necessary to eat more fruits and vegetables – and especially pomegranates? The questions here are: Can I monitor, at least somewhat accurately, how many servings of fruits and vegetables I eat each day (maybe use a camera to photograph them if necessary)? Can I set a goal – is it to increase what I eat by one serving a day, try a pomegranate at least once a week? Will I set up some kind of reinforcement or reward system up for eating fruits and vegetables? If I can do this, my confidence level shoots up again, as opposed to feeling too busy and frantic to pull it all together.
Exiting from the self-efficacy box (yes, I see others doing it, I sense social support for it, I can manage it and tackle the barriers, and I am motivated), then I wonder what the payoff will be? Positive effects on my health, status among my foodie friends, or energy level? Negative effects on my enjoyment of meals, bank account, or family members who have to eat what I eat? These, and others, are the Outcome Expectancies – what do I expect to happen if I start changing and adopt new eating behaviors?
Now, will someone or something remind me to eat a fruit or vegetable – or more specifically a pomegranate? Can I create some internal cues that do the same thing – Think: “always have pomegranate juice with my cereal.” How about some environmental cues: pomegranates are always on my shopping list and on a shelf in my refrigerator. These are the cues to action. If the cues are there – whether it is a person telling me, a sign at the grocer or my own reminders to myself – then I’m more likely to do it. If the cues aren’t there, or worse, even contradictory to eating fruits and vegetables (“New health alert: pomegranates may be dangerous to your health”), then guess what? Not even thinking about eating that!
These are the key factors that influence whether I adopt or learn new behaviors – I hate the word “change!” – as do most people. And if I try a pomegranate, and it tastes bad and takes too long to prepare, these negative Behavioral Outcomes make it less likely I’ll try it again. But maybe having it in a restaurant (environmental context) is easier and better than doing it at home. OK, order more pomegranates when I’m out eating. Or try different fruits and vegetables. Maybe one of my dear social supporters will show me a way to buy and prepare them more easily – or I’ll search and find recipes on the internet. Those actual experiences of trying the new behavior influence my Outcome Expectations, my Self-Efficacy and my future behaviors.
In summary, social cognitive theory is the road map I always trust to give me a large picture of helping people learn new behaviors (NOT change them). When I hear people talk about focusing on nudges (cues to action), or social support, or peer and social norms, or barriers to ‘change,’ I always cringe. If you look at social cognitive theory, you will see all of those variables are important – including environmental constraints to, and facilitators for, action. Learning new behaviors is the service we are providing for people when we talk about ‘behavior change.’ There are many factors that go into learning. Map out for yourselves what your priority group currently does, and what they could do, and use this graphic as your roadmap. I suggest that you will be surprised at the insights and interventions it may help you discover.
The SCT Questions You Need to Answer for Helping People Learn New Behaviors
Have I seen or heard about other people doing it?
Have I done it before (or something like it)?
Am I motivated to do it?
Are there obstacles or barriers in the way for doing it?
Do I have support from others to try it?
Do I have the skills to try and practice the new behavior?
AND – How confident am I that I can do the behavior?
What do I expect to happen (positively or negatively)?
Are there reminders or cues to do it?
Is the environmental context right for making that choice?
OK – now I’m ready to try something new.
Which answers are most important for your priority group is your formative research question. How many answers you line up and address is your intervention design issue. Whether it leads to desired individual and social change is your evaluation question. The more deliberate you are when thinking through what theory to use, the more likely your are to have an effective social marketing intervention.
Carins, J.E. & Rundle-Thiele, S.R. (2014). Eating for the better: A social marketing review (2000-2012). Public Health Nutrition; 17(7):1628-1639.
Evans, W.D., Blitstein, J., Vallone, D., Post, S. & Nielsen, W. (2015). Systematic review of heath branding: Growth of a promising practice. Translational Behavioral Medicine; 5:24-36.
Fujuhira, H., Kubacki, K., Ronto, R., Pang, B & Rundle-Thiele, S. (2015). Social marketing physical activity interventions among adults 60 years and older: A systematic review. Social Marketing Quarterly; 21(4):214-229.
Helmig, B. & Thaler, J. (2010). On the effectiveness of social marketing – What do we really know? Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing; 22(4):264-287.
Hornik, R.C. & Yanovitzky, I. (2003). Using theory to design evaluations of communication campaigns: The case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Communication Theory; 13(2):2014-224.
Ness, R.B. (2015). Promoting innovative thinking. American Journal of Public Health; (105; Suppl 1): S114-118.
Noar, S.M., Palmgreen, P., Chabot, M., Dobransky, N. & Zimmerman, R.S. (2009). A 10-Year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress? Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives; 14(1):15-42.
Riley, W.T., Martin, C.A., Rivera, D.E et al. (2016). Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory. Translational Behavioral Medicine; 6:483-495. doi: 10.1007/s13142-015-0356-6
Stead, M., Gordon, R., Angus, K. & McDermott, L. (2007). A systematize review of social marketing effectiveness. Health Education; 107(2):126-191.
Xia, Y, Deshpande, S. & Bonates, T. (2016). Effectiveness of social marketing interventions to promote physical activity among adults: A systematic review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health; 13:1263-1274.
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